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网站详情 去火星咱们住哪科学家从蘑菇身上找到了创意

收录时间:2018-09-17 15:51

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去火星咱们住哪科学家从蘑菇身上找到了创意

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  Maurer is a Cleveland-based architect who will bring you down to earth very quickly about the romantic ideal of colonizing another planet.Most of us realize it’s probably a one-way trip.The Mars One Foundation–which dreams of putting colonies on Mars by 2023–recently had 200,000 people volunteer for the adventure,even knowing they’d have to die on the red planet.Elon Musk,whose SpaceX promises to land on Mars in 2024,has announced a plan for a city that would house a million people.
 
  Maurer是一位克利夫兰的修建师,他能够十分快速地将你带离地球,探究另一个星球殖民的浪漫抱负。咱们大多数人意识到这可能是一次单程游览。虽然这是一次前往火星的单程游览,但近期全球仍有20万人报名争当志愿者。而硅谷明星创业者伊隆·马斯克(Elon Musk)领导的太空探究公司SpaceX许诺将于2024年将人类送上火星,并于未来在火星上缔造一个可包容100万人的城市。
 
  Often,these broad strokes visions overlook tremendous design problems,beyond Mars’s?55°C average temperatures and lack of a breathable oxygen atmosphere.But Maurer has a solution:grow Martian buildings out of mushrooms.And he’s working with NASA to make it a reality.
 
  一般情况下,咱们会疏忽了巨大的规划问题,考虑到火星外表零下55摄氏度的平均温度和缺氧环境,克利夫兰修建师克里斯托弗·莫尔(Christopher Maurer)正在与美国国家航空航天局协作,用栽培蘑菇来打造火星修建物。
 
  (1)The problem of building materials in space.
 
  太空修建资料的问题
 
  Right now,it costs about$10,000 to put a single pound of payload into orbit.Even SpaceX admits you can’t possibly carry all of the materials you need with you because the rocket payloads would be too pricey,so that means you’re probably forming a shelter in situ,instead,out of Martian dirt.
 
  现在将1磅有效载荷送入轨迹需求大约1万美元的费用。即便SpaceX也供认,由于经过火箭运送有效载荷的本钱太高,因而登陆火星的开拓者不可能带着一切需求的资料,所以这意味着人类成功登陆火星后可能需求在原地缔造一个暂时避难所。
 
  Maybe a dirt hut doesn’t sound so bad,especially in the fetching red hue of Mars soil.But there’s another catch:To block the cancerous radiation that flows through most of space,you need more than some adobe bricks.You need 10-foot-thick walls of the soil,which is why that scenario probably has you just moving underground instead–“living like early burrowing mammals,”Maurer says.
 
  或许暂时的一间小屋听起来并没有那么糟糕,但还有一个问题:为了阻挠来自外太空的丧命辐射,火星殖民者需求的不只仅是一些土坯砖。你需求至少10英尺厚的土壤墙,这就是为什么起先殖民火星的人类或许只能在地下活动——“像穴居哺乳动物相同日子,”莫尔说。
 
  (2)A novel,organic solution.
 
  一种新的有机解决方案
 
  In his Ohio architecture firm,Redhouse Studio Architecture,Maurer has spent the past three years experimenting with refuse from mushroom harvesting–stuff like its mycelium root structure humans don’t typically eat–compressing the waste into strong planks to build sustainable housing.At a conference,he met NASA scientist Lynn Rothschild who had also been considering the potential of mycelium as a growing material.
 
  在其坐落俄亥俄州的修建公司Redhouse Studio Architecture中,莫尔在曩昔三年中一向测验菌丝体根部结构来缔造绿色住所。人类一般不会食用蘑菇的这一部位,将其压缩成板材后就能够缔造房子。在一次会议上,莫尔遇见了美国宇航局科学家林恩·罗斯柴尔德(Lynn Rothschild),后者恰巧也在考虑用菌丝体作为修建资料栽培资料的潜力。
 
  Independently,they’d both reached the same vision,and realized if so,they might as well work together to actualize it:Why not just grow buildings from the ground up?And instead of settling for earth,why not try it on Mars?
 
  他们各自都想到了这一点。在碰头都两人意识到假如可行,他们也能够一同努力完成它:为什么不在火星上试试呢?
 
  “With one spore,you could grow mycelium,indefinitely,”says Maurer.“With just a little seed biology,a couple pounds going into space can turn into thousands of tons of building materials on destination.”And with a carefully designed,vacuum-sealed plastic bag,that mycelium can grow into a giant habitat with little to no human effort required,filling its casing like an intergalactic pop-up tent.
 
  “只需求一个孢子,菌丝体就会无限期地成长。”莫尔说,“只需求把握一点点种子生物学,载入太空中的几磅资料就能够变成上千吨的修建资料。”并且,经过精心规划的真空密封塑料袋,菌丝体能够成长成一个巨大的栖息地,乃至不需求任何人工干预,其外壳就像一个太空中的大帐子。
 
  Now,Maurer and Rothschild hope to prove the concept first on a NASA-funded study here on Earth,by turning 1,722 pounds of material(most of which is the plastic shell)into a McMansion-sized igloo that grows itself in just a few weeks.
 
  现在,莫尔和罗斯柴尔德期望首先在NASA赞助的研讨中证明这一概念。他们将1,722磅资料(其间大部分是柔软外壳)转变成一个“快餐式大宅”(McMansion)巨细的冰屋,在短短几周时间内即可成长完结。
 
  If they succeed,they’ll demonstrate a dwelling that’s also possible to grow on Mars–with a payload that’s almost two orders of magnitude lighter than NASA previously thought possible.
 
  假如获得成功,他们将能够展现一个也有可能在火星上成长的修建物——并且这一有效载荷简直比美国航空航天局从前以为要轻两个数量级。
 
  (3)A strange,old material.
 
  一种古怪的老资料
 
  Perhaps mycelium seems like an odd building material.It’s probably something you’ve never heard even of,since the mushroom is the reproductive fruit of the plant that you eat,and the mycelium is the part that lives out of sight,under the Earth’s surface.How could you build a house out of fungus?
 
  或许听起来菌丝体似乎是一种古怪的修建资料。这可能是你从来没有听说过的东西,由于蘑菇仅仅你日常吃的一种东西,而菌丝则是蘑菇长在地表下的看不见的部分。你怎样能用真菌来缔造一座房子呢?
 
  In fact,it can have tensile strengths that rival wood.It’s also lightweight,fire retardant,and self-healing.A little water,CO2,and algae(or similar food)is all it needs to grow into habitats,furniture,or even shells for rovers.
 
  事实上,菌丝的抗拉强度能够与木材相媲美。此外其还具有重量轻,阻燃以及自我修正力强的特色。只需求少数的水、二氧化碳和藻类,菌丝就能够大面积成长。
 
  “It may sound strange and weird to talk about[growing]a biological structure on Mars,but think about it,we’ve been using biology to build habitats on the Earth for thousands of years.Whether you’re talking about a teepee with wood and skin or houses made out of wood,we use biological products in building all the time,”says NASA’S Rothschild.“I’m sitting here looking at myself,and I have leather in my shoes,I have cotton in my jeans,and wool in my sweater.”
 
  “在火星上议论[怎么成长]一种生物结构可能听起来很古怪,但想一想,数千年来咱们现已运用生物制品在地球上缔造了很多的栖息地。比方咱们用木头和动物皮做成的圆锥形帐子,或者是用木头缔造的房子,咱们一向在运用生物制品,”美国航空航天局的罗斯柴尔德说,“我坐在这儿看看自己,我的皮鞋上有皮革,我的牛仔裤上有棉花,毛衣上有羊毛。”
 
  Rothschild is an astrobiologist and synthetic biologist.She believes that it may be possible to not just grow a fungus shelter,but to seed it with genetically engineered bacteria that would help absorb harmful radiation.One possibility is that the fungus itself could develop melanin,the same thing that makes our skin tan in the sun,to help convert harmful energy into more food for the structure.Such genetic engineering is another thread of the project that Rothschild plans to study.
 
  罗斯柴尔德是一位天体生物学家和组成生物学家。她以为,不只能够经过栽培真菌来缔造火星避难所,一起还能够使用基因工程的细菌来协助吸收有害辐射。一种可能性是,真菌自身就能够发生黑色素,协助将有害能量转化为更多的修建结构体。这种基因工程是罗斯柴尔德方案研讨项目的另一个主题。
 
  In any case,Rothschild and Maurer imagine that they can build a dwelling that looks a lot more like a human home than a prehistoric burrow,simply because you can grow mycelium in any shape you want.And in doing so,life on Mars could feel much more like a life worth living.
 
  无论怎么,罗斯柴尔德和莫尔幻想他们能够缔造一个看起来更像是人类住所而不是史前窟窿的避难所,由于你能够以任何你想要的形状来栽培菌丝体。而在这样做的时分,火星可能更像是一个值得日子的当地。
 
  (4)Looking ahead.
 
  展望未来
 
  As promising as the work may sound,growing a habitat on Mars is still a long ways off.This nine-month proof of research grant itself is just beginning now,and it’s aimed at projects that NASA deems 10 to 20 years away from fruition.If it goes well,the team will pursue another that lasts for two years.
 
  虽然该项目听起来很有期望,但在火星上树立一个栖息地还有很长的路要走。这项为期九个月的研讨现在才刚刚开始,其方针是美国航空航天局将要在未来十到二十年要完成的方案。假如发展顺畅,该团队将展开另一项继续两年的项目。
 
  “We’re showing in principal this would work,”says Rothschild.“A double-bag dome igloo is a very easy concept.”Growing it 33.9 million miles away is just slightly more complicated.
 
  “理论上现已标明这会有用,”罗斯柴尔德说,“用真菌打造一个圆顶冰屋是一个十分简略的概念。”当然,在距地球3390万英里以外的当地完成这一点仅仅略微杂乱一些。
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